The exodus of highly qualified and talented human resources can cost a country heavily; as to train such highly qualified and talented students comes with considerable expense and loss in such human resources is indeed a significant loss. Mostly, this migration of human capital occurs from developing to developed countries. It also affects the economic growth of developing countries, due to the outflow of technically skilled – laborers, depleting the production capacity, and on the other hand, it increases the economic strength of other developed countries; causing more significant relative loss.
Various criteria are responsible for the incline in brain drain, and each of these criteria varies to every person, the motivation for brain drain may have been catalysed because of different reasons, it may have been: –
- Lack of employment.
- Lack of post-graduate opportunities.
- Dissatisfaction towards their home country.
- Political instability in their own country.
- Lack of opportunities, due to high competition generated because of population growth.
- Reservation policy.
Impacts of Reservation policy in catalysing the Brain Drain
The Reservation Policy in India is not limited to undergraduate admissions only; this policy hinders the development of upper caste at every step of life once they have graduated from school. Figure 1 shows the current reservation policy in India based on caste. The total reservation given to the general caste is 40.5%, which is not entirely reserved for general caste, the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) can also claim the seats allotted to general caste; And addition to it they also get perks in their allotted section.
There are not many educational institutes which provide quality education for the post-graduation or doctorate. Apart from IITs, IIMs, NITs, and some other private institutes, one cannot receive a quality education; which leads to incomplete development of one’s resume, through which he/she cannot acquire a better living standard. And, these reservation policies are applicable for post-graduation too, which amplifies the sense, as with such fierce competition they also have to deal with the Reservation policy. As an example, the students who have relatively lower merit and want to go for medical education, have very few chances of getting admission in India. Therefore, every year thousands of students have to go abroad for medical education in countries like China, Russia, the Philippines, Poland, etc. Also, the Reservation policy is not only limited to education only, but this 40.5 % is also applicable for government jobs too, and even after the job selection reservation plays a role in the promotion too. This leads to dissatisfaction among the general caste towards their home country and triggers them to commute abroad for better opportunities. As they, feel reservation has a hindrance at every stage of life.
Among the Asian countries, India has the highest number of immigrant scientists and engineers in the US. A report from 2013 shows an approximate 85% increase from 2003 in the brain drain. From 2003 to 2013, this decade has increased significantly from 3.4 million to 5.2 million, the Indian scientist and engineers, said the report from the National Science Foundation’s National Centre for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES). Also, A recent study, by European countries, showed an exponential increase in the number of students migrating to the US, UK, and Australia, and it showed that majority of students are of upper caste.
Influence of Political behaviour over Brain Drain
The political behavior has a significant influence on the students, with all the political parties in the favor castes-based reservation, this develops a sense dissatisfaction, for example, two years ago, the government increased the tuition fees and hostel fees in IITs for the general caste, to nullify the fees cut for the SC, ST, and OBCs, this step by the government clearly shows the political behavior in favor of caste-based reservations, which may develop dissatisfaction against the political parties and can trigger the motivation to proceed abroad. Recently, In July 2015, the state of Gujarat witnessed massive protests and damage to public property following the agitation of the Patel community demanding inclusion of the Patel community in Other Backward Class (OBC) category; which clearly shows, the oppose of the citizens against the reservation policies. Jats have been demanding the status of OBC since the 1990s; wherein 2016 the also started agitation to get status too, which cause damage of $4.8 billion to public property.
Even the Reservation policy, was initially implemented for ten years according to the first copy of the Indian constitution. However, the political parties extended the period in order to gain power.
The Reservation has become the hidden cost that nobody wants to look at. It has become divisive and impacts the Indian citizens adversely, instead of helping. Currently, scrapping the whole reservation system will be an injustice to the communities who have been oppressed for years and yet not financially stable enough to provide adequate education to their next-generation. However, it is also true that it also causes injustice to the general caste as it does not provide a common ground of equal opportunities. Nevertheless, this policy should be analyzed and revised according to the current scenario of the society. As for an example, If the medical administrative perspectives are observed, the reservation policy is administratively helping the backward castes, to get into reputed universities at low merits, which may cause consequence for the person as a medical practitioner, as he/she was less qualified for the admission according to the merit; which cause them difficulties as a medic and to the patients he/she practice. In the end, Reservation is harming the society, instead of uplifting society.